Wednesday, 30 September 2020

Earth, internal structure of Earthquakes and volcanoes

 Earth, the internal structure of Earthquakes, and volcanoes are manifestations of processes at work deep within Earth. These processes in turn are evidence of Earth’s internal structure, models of which have undergone considerable evolution in the 20th century. On a large scale, the internal features of Earth may be categorized as follows:

1. Core. This is the innermost layer of Earth, a dense, approximately spherical mass of very hot rock that accounts for roughly one-third of the planet’s mass and one-sixth of its volume. The core is divided into a solid inner core and a liquid outer layer.

2. Mantle. The mantle, the thick layer of rock surrounding the core, contains about two-thirds of Earth’s mass and more than four-fifths of its volume. An outer layer of the mantle is called the asthenosphere and is involved closely with driving plate tectonics. There is also a division within the upper and lower mantle based on mineral structure.

3. Crust. The crust, or surface layer, of Earth, is very thin compared to the mantle and core (five to 80 miles [8 to 129 km] thick) and accounts for only a tiny fraction of Earth’s total mass and volume. The crust floats on the asthenosphere by a process called isostasy, in which the relatively lightweight rocks of the crust are supported by the denser rocks below. The crust is divided into several individuals, rigid plates that interact with one another through various processes, generating earthquakes and volcanic activity. The crust contains many faults that produce numerous earthquakes.

Earthflow - an earthflow is a type of mass movement. It is a viscous flow of saturated, fine-grained materials that move downslope at speeds ranging from barely perceptible up to about 10 miles per hour (about 0.1 m/sec). Materials susceptible to earthflow include clay, fine sand and silt, and fine-grained pyroclastic material (primarily ash). 

The velocity and distance of the earthflow are controlled by water content, with faster and longer movements through higher water content. Some earth flows may continue to move for years. Earth flows normally begin when the water content increases either through rain, melting (normal heating or volcanic eruption), or liquefaction during an earthquake. Shaking from an earthquake may also initiate flow in saturated soil. The flows tend to bulge in the middle as they move, which in turn channels more fluid to the middle while the edges dry out. Earth flows will stop moving when the water content drops.

Earthquake hazard. An earthquake hazard is considered to be any of the damaging effects and processes of an earthquake that may affect the normal activities of people. Examples of earthquake hazards include surface faulting, ground shaking, landslides, liquefaction, slumping, fissures, avalanches, tsunamis, and seiches, among others.

Earthquake light - This phenomenon consists of a peculiar glow that sometimes is reportedly seen in the sky during earthquakes. What causes earthquake light is uncertain, but it has been suggested that methane escaping from underground during earthquakes is ignited somehow and burns near the surface, giving off light.

Earthquake risk - Earthquake risk is the probable damage to buildings, roads, services, and other infrastructure and the number of people that are expected to be killed or injured during an earthquake of a size in a location. Earthquake risk is a probabilistic model for a specific seismic event. It varies considerably with each area depending upon population and emergency readiness.

Earthquake swarm - Many earthquakes preceding a volcanic eruption. As magma moves upward in the crust, it pushes rock out of the way. It forces open cracks in the rock. Each break results in a small earthquake. These earthquakes are typical of magnitudes of 4 or less, but some larger earthquakes are possible. There can be hundreds to thousands of earthquakes in such swarms. volcanologists use this kind of seismic activity to predict eruptions. The correlation is not foolproof. Many earthquake swarms do not foretell a coming eruption but rather just the movement of magma.

Monday, 18 May 2020

Consequences of Deterioration in the System of Nature

The world's food production, clean drinking water, basic living facilities, and public health resources are declining and the population is growing. So, further burdening the families of the poor and creating social evils. In this regard, it has been mentioned in most of the reports where the average growth rate of the population is high and the resources are decreasing.
The people of developing countries are suffering from apathy, frustration, and chaos; they are not willing to accept any scientific, logical argument. Economic backwardness, mental discomfort, and lack of civic sense have plunged them further into poverty. The more problems from which the only way out is quality education, awareness-raising, and a tradition of dialogue, but how can that be? This question is stuck in its place.
All reports, surveys and press releases released by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) express deep concern over current ground conditions, climate change, and the spread of epidemics. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) says that despite international agreements, including those reached the 195-nation summit in Paris, the results are far from certain. Climate change is causing sea levels, global warming, epidemics, droughts, floods, and hurricanes to increase. It has found China's private companies are at the forefront of the relentless use of natural fuels.
Many times the increase in cars is a sign of China's growth, but the rapid increase in carbon emissions is polluting the air. Car manufacturers are focusing more on the production of petrol and diesel cars. Countries and multinational corporations are in a race to make the most of modern cars, and modern-day advertising is driving people crazy.
Most of the leading car companies in Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Japan and South Korea are working to develop alternative energy-efficient cars that can run on large solar and electric batteries. On the other hand, a strange and important issue Russia currently has the world's largest oil and natural gas reserves. Then there is Saudi Arabia, which is the largest exporter of oil. Iran, Qatar, Venezuela, Kuwait, and the Gulf states, which have spent on oil sales, are worried that the United States, the largest consumer, and buyer of oil, is now itself.
It produces the world's second-largest oil reserves. In such a situation, oil prices are falling and production is being reduced. There is also fierce competition, as evidenced by the recent dispute between Russia and Saudi Arabia over oil. Russia is unwilling to accept OPEC terms, while Saudi Arabia is unwilling to accept Russia's terms.
As a result, reconditioned cars from modern developed countries are being sold to less developed countries. In this way, developed countries sell the latest cars to their people instead of old cars have been. In developing countries, old cars are rampant, and oil consumption has increased. This is the contradiction of trade, of the global economy, one for-profit, and the other for loss. Climate change is increasing, and pollution is increasing.
Traffic jams not only spread smoke, density pollution but also noise pollution. We pay less attention to noise pollution while it is very dangerous. The noise of traffic on the road, the awkward sounds of horns, the noise from machines, loud music, and other activities have a very negative effect on our hearing, our mind, and nerves.
The vast majority of urban dwellers suffer from mental and nervous stress and various other ailments. People in developing countries suffer from many deadly diseases, viruses, and social problems. The biggest problem of these countries is population growth which is not noticed by the governments, society, or the elites.
Rural people do not even consider this a problem. Lack of education, lack of awareness, and some religious superstitions have made the people numb. The people of developing countries are suffering from apathy, frustration, and chaos; they are not willing to accept any scientific, logical argument.
Economic backwardness, mental discomfort, and lack of civics have plunged them further into poverty and problems. Therefore, the only way out of which is quality education and awareness-raising and a tradition of dialogue. But how is that? This question is stuck in its place.
Top priorities in the United Nations Environment Program, reduction of pollution, and social stability in societies are eradication of poverty and hunger, improvement of public health, universal education, and equal rights for women, clean drinking water.
Providing water and promoting the use of alternative energy instead of natural fuels for pollution-free societies, innovating industrial development, eliminating economic inequalities, continuing the struggle for justice and civil rights, and eliminating backwardness in societies.
UN environmentalists say the only way to solve these problems is through a public struggle. But instead of a public struggle, people can use modern means of communication, such as mobile phones, the Internet, Facebook, YouTube, WhatsApp, Twitter, etc., even without taking to the streets. In recent days, this work has been carried out by school children in more than 30 countries.
Such recipes are necessary. The people will benefit from it because the problem is not small. Further the entire planet and all kinds of life on it, of which the man is the foremost. The fact is that changes in the natural environment do not happen in months or years but in decades and centuries.
The recent conference of the United Nations Environment Program was attended by more than 500 environmentalists, geologists and geographers who have made it clear in their report that despite all the efforts and report so far, no practical steps have been taken.
Earth's temperature is rising, sea levels are rising, and large glaciers of ice are melting into the oceans in Greenland, the Himalayas, and Antarctica. River water is receding. Due to which seawater is entering the Delta areas which are badly affecting the agriculture and society of the Delta areas.
Due to this, various epidemics are spreading in these areas. Instead of disposing of industrial, chemical and acidic wastes properly, they are being dumped in seas, lakes, and canals, which are having severe adverse effects. This water is irrigating fields and vegetable farms in most areas. This is giving rise to various diseases.
Experts have repeatedly warned governments and responsible industrial circles not to play with precious human lives. But it is still going on. Global environmentalists and scholars have complained to the heads of different countries that they are talking about taking the necessary steps to reduce pollution and improve the environment, but in practice what is coming out. The problem is that the modern capitalist system, the retail and monopoly system, has established its monopoly through corporations.
The world has been transformed into a commercial market where everything comes from money. More exploitation is taking place in the name of globalization, even forcing people to buy and drink water. A monopoly has been established on every important thing.
Everything is being taken over by a powerful and organized mafia. The big shopping malls are sitting on monopolies. People are wasting money in the desert of dazzling lights. Gradually small capitalists, traders, and shopkeepers are disappearing.
Construction companies around the world have united; they have joined hands with the bureaucracy of countries through corruption. Black money launderers, tax evaders and those who make money through illicit means are supporting the mafia by investing in such businesses. The land, the sea, the drinking water, the grain markets, the foodstuffs, the pharmacies, and even the pharmacies are under siege. Honest politicians, judges, administrative officers, teachers, and ordinary citizens are the victims of gossip.
European educators complained at a recent meeting at the University of Paris that the vast majority of students from developing countries who come here for higher education have little emphasis on their subjects. There is no awareness. This is because education in developing countries is also being taken over by corrupt people called plant mafia.
A large number of students have become accustomed to shortcuts. In most universities, teachers teach students through photocopy notices. Universities are teaching old textbooks. In fact, quality education is not provided in primary and high schools in these countries.
Mafia occupation of the sea is said to be such that in most countries, where there are beaches, a significant portion of their population earns their living by fishing from the sea, which is now a concern. Because it has traditional fishing nets and other traditional equipment from which they have been fishing in their areas for years, but it is said that there are big modern trawlers of companies from developed countries who have all the modern equipment.
And there are self-employed equipment and experts who in a short period of time can catch a large part of the fish that weighs in tons. In such a situation, the fishermen of poor countries are becoming poorer and unemployed, but the mafia is doing its job.
Leading environmentalists from around the world, including John Jobber and Aldoliput, have stated in a recent research report that a strong lobby has emerged in the United States since Donald Trump became president, which has announced.
The lobby is also backed by the leading American newspaper, the Wall Street Journal. In fact, President Trump and a large lobby in the Republican Party, which owns oil companies, natural coal mines, and motorized companies. They are convincing the public that by rejecting global warming and developing a new ideology.
Hurricanes keep coming to the United States, blizzards on the rise around the world, paralyzing life in many cities and affected areas for days, closing roads, making it difficult for trains to run and power outages in some cities. The system gets wetter now because the world is entering the Ice Age According to this lobby.
The weather has been changing since the earth came into being. Once upon a time, it was a ball of fire. Oceans of fire used to boil. Then, centuries later, when the earth cooled down, the ice froze. And it was covered with snow. Then gradually, centuries later, the ice melted and turned into water, becoming oceans, mountains, and life.
These people claim that this earth is going to become a world of ice again and a time will come when the earth will be completely covered with ice, and the seas will freeze. This lobby's ice theory has been rejected by world leaders and thousands of experts because they believe that US President Donald Trump is a businessman, so he rejected the Paris Agreement in support of his big business friends and circles.
Separated, they want to maximize the use and sale of US oil, coal, and natural gas, as they do not participate in or support any agreement to curb the use of natural fuels. The recent incident in this regard is obvious to all. "It's not a dangerous virus, it's just a flu-like virus, it doesn't have to be confined to the house, you all have to work," he said.
When bad news started coming from one city after another, President Trump became confused and, as usual, started venting his anger on China and sometimes on Narendra Modi. China, India, Brazil, and other countries are also benefiting from the US environmental policy and are making good use of natural coal and diesel.
Thus, pollution control measures are not being implemented, which is of further concern to experts. Scientists, environmentalists, and geologists have repeatedly warned African and some Asian countries to take meaningful measures to curb population growth as the pace of population growth is severely affecting the planet's natural environment.
The world's food production, clean drinking water, basic living facilities, and public health resources are declining and the population is growing, further burdening the families of the poor and creating social evils. In this regard, Pakistan has been mentioned in most of the reports where the average growth rate of the population is high and the resources are declining.
For example, clean drinking water is becoming scarce; people have to buy water to drink. The poor are deprived of it. This is just the fault of the governments. The world's seawater is being used for purification. In the northern part of Pakistan, there are the world's largest glaciers, five rivers flow on our land.
It rains every year, floods come and wreak havoc in the sea. But governments have not built small dams, artificial lakes. If an artificial lake is built in the Cholistan, a large area can be irrigated and water scarcity can be reduced. The practice of building small dams is becoming common in the world and the idea of ​​building big dams has been rejected.
Therefore, in Pakistan, whose population is growing, it is necessary to build small dams. Monsoon rains have been increasing in Pakistan for a long time. Floods are coming from torrential rains. This is obvious to all, but unseen forces remain an obstacle in building dams. This is beyond comprehension. Water will become a major issue for nations in the years to come.
With regard to the global environment and climate change, we cannot deny the fact that man will have to bear the brunt of the distortions in the balance of nature. Man, intoxicated with gold, lust, greed, and power, has not only destroyed the society but has also severely damaged the natural system.
Man claims that he has reached many stages of development today and is now fulfilling the mission of conquering the universe. But has the planet established a corner that is environmentally friendly and free from all kinds of pollution and viral diseases? No, the whole world is polluted.
The United Nations Environment Program said in its annual report last year that Hurricane Sandy, which hit North America last year, was caused by a two-degree rise in temperature in the Atlantic Ocean. In this regard, most of the world's scientists who have been researching the marine environment, believe that climate change is happening in the world every thirty years, but this time the last two highs are changing the marine environment.
They are out of the ordinary. Recent maritime research, for example, has shown that waves are being recorded in the central part of the Indian Ocean. Professor Paul Kinch, who is researching the marine environment at a Canadian university, says the oceans could pose a major threat to the world.
He says modern research has shown that sea levels are gradually changing. Eighty years from now, the sea level is expected to rise eight feet in 2100 and to 50 feet in 2300. Experts believe that the waves in the middle of the Indian Ocean are signaling a major catastrophe in the near future, which poses a serious threat to all coastal cities and islands in the Indian Ocean.
Experts are more concerned about the rising sea level. The ocean, which is also associated with the South Pole, is heavier and is being affected by melting glaciers in the Arctic ice region. In addition, changes in the Atlantic Ocean, which lies between the North and the South, could affect the United States and its surrounding islands. In light of this sea-level change, a lobby of US experts, in support of President Trump, has likened global warming to global cooling.

Tuesday, 1 May 2018

Antarctica's Thwaites Glacier Might Be Unstable

•Eight research teams will be part of a massive five-year project to study an Antarctic glacier that's in rapid retreat.
•If it happens, the Thwaites Glacier's collapse would cause a dramatic rise in sea levels.
•The researchers are hoping to find out how dire the situation is, and what additional impacts this collapse would have.
•They'll be focused on the Thwaites Glacier, located on the western side of Antarctica. It has lost a huge amount of ice recently – enough to contribute about 4 percent of overall sea level rise – and a complete collapse of the Florida-sized glacier would push sea levels up as much as 3 feet, according to Public Radio International.
The new study will be an attempt to learn more about the glacier in hopes that it'll lead to better modeling and a more exact projection of what might happen in the future.
"Really, the whole program is about understanding that extra uncertainty attached to sea level rise and doing what we can to remove it, allowing people to protect their coastal environments and to prepare property to protect their populations," David Vaughan, the director of science at the British Antarctic Survey,
One reason why we know relatively little about Thwaites is because few researchers have made expeditions to West Antarctica to study it since the first trip in the 1950s, PRI also said. The glacier is some 1,000 miles from the closest research station, and weather conditions are not friendly to those who venture into the region, the report added.

But this time, eight research teams will join together for the project, and they plan to study everything from the bedrock under the ice sheet to the climate above it in hopes of finding out as much as they can about the glacier, PRI added. They want to know the history of this ice sheet so they can understand how it has behaved in the past, and if there's any hope to save it during the rapid retreat period currently taking place.

"There is still a question in my view as to whether Thwaites has actually entered an irreversible retreat," Vaughan told "It assumes the melt rates we see today continue into the future and that's not guaranteed. Thwaites is clearly on the verge of an irreversible retreat, but to be sure we need 10 years more data."

About 100 scientists will be sent to West Antarctica as part of the study, according to It'll be the biggest collaboration between U.S. and U.K. scientists in Antarctica in at least 70 years, the report added.

The study will cost about $27.5 million, according to Newser.

Monday, 19 March 2018

Final Warning by Stephen Hawkings

Stephen Hawking's final warning to humanity by legendary physicist believed we must leave Earth in the next 200 years or face EXTINCTION. Humans must leave Earth in the next 200 years if we want to survive. That was the stark warning issued by Professor Stephen Hawking in the months before his death today at the age of 76. The legendary physicists believed that life on Earth could be wiped out by a disaster such as an asteroid strike, AI or an alien invasion. He also warned over-population, human aggression and climate change could cause humanity to self-destruct. He believed, if our species had any hope of survival, future generations would need to forge a new life in space.

One of Hawking's main fears for the planet was global warming. 'Our physical resources are being drained, at an alarming rate. We have given our planet the disastrous gift of climate change,' Hawking warned in July. Moreover, rising temperatures and reduction of the polar ice caps, deforestation, and decimation of animal species. We can be an ignorant, unthinking lot.'  Hawking said that Earth will one day look like the 460°C (860°F) planet Venus if we don't cut greenhouse gas emissions.  Next time you meet a climate change denier, tell them to take a trip to Venus. I will pay the fare,' Hawking quipped. The physicist also believed President Donald Trump's decision to withdraw from the Paris Climate Agreement has doomed our planet. He warned Trump's decision would cause avoidable damage to our 'beautiful planet' for generations to come. 'We are close to the tipping point where global warming becomes irreversible,' the celebrated scientist told BBC last year.

If global warming doesn't wipe us out, Hawking believed Earth would be destroyed by an asteroid strike. 'This is not science fiction. It is guaranteed by the laws of physics and probability,' he said.  'To stay risks being annihilated. 'Spreading out into space will completely change the future of humanity. It may also determine whether we have any future at all.'  Hawking was working with Russian billionaire Yuri Milner's Breakthrough Starshot project to send a fleet of tiny 'nanocraft' carrying light sails on a four light-year journey to Alpha Centauri, the nearest star system to Earth. 'If we succeed we will send a probe to Alpha Centauri within the lifetime of some of you alive today,' he said. Astronomers estimate that there is a reasonable chance of an Earth-like planet existing in the 'habitable zones' of Alpha Centauri's three-star system.  'It is clear we are entering a new space age. We are standing at the threshold of a new era', said Hawking. 'Human colonisation and other planets is no longer science fiction, it can be science fact.'

Hawking believed that In the long run the human race should not have all its eggs in one basket, or on one planet. 'I just hope we can avoid dropping the basket until then', he said.  AI could replace humans. Hawking claimed that AI will soon reach a level where it will be a 'new form of life that will outperform humans.' He even went so far as to say that AI may replace humans altogether, although he didn't specify a timeline for his predictions. The chilling comments during a recent interview with Wired. He said: 'The genie is out of the bottle. I fear that AI may replace humans altogether.

Friday, 13 October 2017

Yellowstone Supervolcano May Erupt Quickly

The supervolcano lie in wait for beneath Yellowstone National Park could be getting ready to explode, an eruption that could be shattering to life on Earth. It could take as little as a human lifetime for a dormant volcano to wake up and make itself for an immense eruption, scientists say. As far as Yellowstone, such super-eruption last happened more than 600,000 years ago, after magma filled the empty chambers below the Earth’s surface some decades before it blew. Earlier it was supposed that this build up took thousands of years, but the new research suggests the timeframe was much tighter. The Yellowstone supervolcano, if it erupts, likely transforms the Earth’s weather into a volcanic winter. Even more concerning is the fact that we might not be given enough time to prepare for such a disaster. The latest findings were the result of a study carried out by a team from Arizona State University.

Researchers believed, such Yellowstone supervolcano is capable of unleashing abundant ash and rock into hundreds of cubic miles at one time into an eruption radius large enough to cover most of the united states in a thick fog and affect the environment of the entire planet. However, it’s not the only supervolcano there is. In Italy the “Campi Flegrei” is another example of one of these natural monsters that could be devastating if it were to erupt. In 1538, the Campi Flegrei, last blew, has experienced earthquakes and ground uplifting that has made room for magma to build up beneath it. The top level indicates that an eruption released 250 cubic miles of magma.

However, it is predicting a volcanic eruption is difficult, though volcanologists are trying to crack the code. This latest research, the scientists found during an analysis of material that after magma filled up the area beneath Yellowstone all those thousands of years ago, temperatures and other conditions changed quickly, over the course of just decades, leading to an eruption. Therefore, it is really shocking how little time is required to take a volcanic system from being quiet and sitting there to the edge of an eruption. Moreover in the recent times, Yellowstone has experienced ground uplifting, a major sign of activity that could possibly warn of an eruption because of the magma buildup that takes place beneath the swelling surface.

According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the last eruption at Yellowstone was 640,000 years ago. Yellowstone National Park doesn’t hold a classic image of a volcano, with a mountain looming high in the sky, but it is still home to a gigantic volcano structure. The most of park is within the Yellowstone caldera, the crater created when the magma from the supervolcano erupted and the Earth’s crust collapsed into the empty space it left behind. Thus, some of its main attractions, including the geyser Old Faithful and the Grand Prismatic Spring are signs of the site’s volcanic activity. However, according to new research, it would only take decades, considerably reducing the expected preparation time that we would have for the disaster.

Wednesday, 7 December 2016

NASA Dramatic Photographs Shows How Our Planet Earth is Changing Over the Time

The below incredible NASA images showing incredible changes have been observed over 100 years or so. If you compare the images, you will know the difference clearly. These pictures are can found on NASA website. The human activities are changing the entire world into cemented skyscrapers and destroying natural resources. The ever changing technologies are playing a big part in increasing human greediness to control natural resources to make a big money. This is incredible stuff and everyone would feel sadness of losing planet earth. No one sure, where would we stand after 100 years? Can our generation see any kind of natural resources or not?  Source: Charismatic Planet

Wednesday, 27 July 2016

The world's hottest day EVER is recorded in Kuwait as temperature soars to 54C

Temperatures in Kuwait reached 54C this week, making Thursday the hottest day EVER recorded. The blistering temperature was recorded in Mitribah, Kuwait, on Thursday. And yesterday, Iraq was nearly as hot, as the mercury soared to 53.9C (129.0 degrees Fahrenheit). Weather forecaster Nagham Mohammed expected temperatures Saturday to hover around 49 degrees Celsius (120.2 Fahrenheit) in Basra and to decline in the coming days. Mohammed added that temperatures in Baghdad are expected to reach 45 degrees Celsius (113 Fahrenheit). And weather historian, Christopher C. Burt said the temperatures made them the hottest "ever reliably measured on Earth". On Wednesday, temperatures soared up to 51C (123.8 Fahrenheit) in Baghdad and as much as 53C (127.4 Fahrenheit) in Basra.