Wednesday, 29 September 2021

Interviews with Key Informants: The Example of Morocco

One more piece of empirical evidence was collected for the qualitative fieldwork through interviews with key informants. In all five countries government officials and nongovernmental experts are well aware of the stress caused by changes in climatic conditions, and of the fact that climate change contributes to rural-urban migration flows even if today it is not the main driver of these flows. They also realize that in most cases, the lack of sufficiently ambitious and well-developed policies and programs contributes to the inability to propose concrete solutions and help to those most affected by climate change in rural areas. Many of the comments made by government officials and non-governmental experts in the various countries were similar so that rather than provide examples from all countries, it is probably more instructive to cover one country in slightly more depth. 

This is done in this section for Morocco because more respondents were either experts on migration or were conducting ongoing research on migration-related issues. Key informants in Morocco explained that migration was historically by men and driven by inequitable development in rural areas. The absence of networks in destination areas made women vulnerable to prostitution or slave labor, so they were less likely to migrate than men. Migrants migrated both internationally and internally, in that case principally to Casablanca, which continues to remain as a prime destination for rural migrants since the Greater Casablanca area alone still attracts around 15 percent of all national migration flows in the country. Today territorial units nearby Casablanca have also become preferred destinations for newcomers. 

This is for example the case of Ain Sebaa, Sidi Moumen, Moulay Rachid, Hay Hassani, Mohammedia city, and districts of Sidi Bernoussi and Hay Mohammadi. Migration to other cities has also picked up as rural migrants are searching for destinations closer to their homes. Key informants explained that three main features remain central to migratory flows irrespective of origin and destination locations. The first is the importance of networks which play a critical role in providing support to migrant families and in helping them to decide their destinations. A second key feature is the importance of the remittances sent by migrants, which are critical not only for household survival in rural areas but also for communities. In Tiznit for example, migrant associations are helping build two-thirds of the roads. Several informants also stated that migration facilitated women's empowerment in rural areas, as the women who remained in the countryside while their husbands were away working in the cities gained more independence and were also more likely to interact with their neighbors. A third important feature, especially in recent years, has been the role of climatic patterns in internal migration. 

Drastic changes in climatic conditions have led to an expansion of shantytowns. In Tafilelt for example, a fourth of the population has migrated due to climatic hazards that had affected agricultural production. Likewise, in the Draa region which has historically been an important center of trade but more recently has been experiencing frequent and longer droughts, out-migration has increased. In general, informants agree that the so-called Oasis belt is losing its population as people are becoming increasingly affected by the negative effects of droughts. Outgoing migration is primarily stemming from the water crisis that Morocco is experiencing. Six of our respondents mentioned water as a major issue, in part due to more droughts, but also with flooding in some areas. 

For example, the Tafilalt region, one of the most important oasis regions in the country, has suffered from severe droughts and flooding which in turn have undermined oasis agriculture. While droughts used to occur every four to five years, they now occur every two years. Climatic hazards are also leading to severe desertification in the Sahara region. Rising seawater levels are also a concern, among others in Saadia where tourism may have contributed to destroying plant life and consequently making the land vulnerable. A respondent suggested that 60 percent of Saadi may soon be underwater. These severe climatic conditions have had a large impact on rural populations, with farmers experiencing increased water scarcity with no access to water reserves. Women have to travel much further away to get water. 

Some respondents were convinced that agricultural yields will fall by 20 percent in 20 years, which drive more migrants from rural areas toward urban centers. Life in the cities will then become difficult for both locals and migrants. Many respondents mentioned ongoing housing and employment crises in urban areas. As locals and migrants compete for survival, the integration will become a major problem and economic discrimination will rise, as may black markets and the informal economy. In large cities such as Casablanca, many migrants are already found to be living in shantytowns. The pressures of living in cities along with influences from urban lifestyles have also been weakening social structures between migrants and their families which may have severe consequences for those still living in Morocco’s rural areas. 

In recognition of these challenges, respondents explained that the Moroccan government launched initiatives at both the national and local levels. One such initiative is a higher focus on rural development programs, among others, through the Human Development Initiative (HDI) which is designed to target vulnerable populations in both rural and urban areas. At the local level, the government is also conducting awareness programs to inform people about climate change. The objective is to teach people about conservation and preservation of water resources, disaster preparedness to limit the negative effects of droughts, and different irrigation schemes to encourage the agricultural sector to become independent of water resources. 

Climate change has also been included as a key component in other initiatives such as Morocco Green and the Communal Development Plan. There is also an Energy Strategy Plan being initiated, and work is ongoing toward an insurance plan named ‘Natural Catastrophe Insurance.’ Active research programs are also ongoing in a few universities. Despite these initiatives, respondents perceived some fatalism, with many believing that everything is happening because of Allah’s will. And at times government programs may contribute to the issues. One respondent mentioned a dam that instead of stopping flooding drained water resources from the ground, leading to poor water quality and affecting surrounding palm trees.

Adverse Weather Trends

Adverse weather trends such as increased flooding and droughts shape the decisions to migrate made by household and individuals. Climate change is widely perceived to reduce crop yields and livestock production, decrease water availability, reduce fishing populations, and limit opportunities in rural areas that depend heavily on agriculture. The goal of this chapter was to contribute to a better understanding of the relationships between climate change, environmental degradation, deterioration of agriculture, and human mobility, through an exploration of the attitudes of rural residents and urban migrants in our five focus countries. Rural residents use a range of coping mechanisms to survive, ranging from eating less and borrowing money to selling livestock and other assets. 

Remittances are also important for survival, and when this source of income is insufficient, additional household members are forced to migrate to other areas in search of better opportunities. Overall, while in some countries such as Egypt and to some extent Morocco, there is a perception that migration opens up new opportunities, in other countries such as Syria, for many migrants migration may be a strategy of last resort than a real choice. While such differences between countries seem to emerge from the qualitative fieldwork and tend to also be supported by quantitative household survey data, of course, individual situations remain highly household and area-specific within each of the five countries. 

The qualitative work also suggests that for urban migrants, the arduous task of obtaining a job is further hindered by corruption and fierce competition with locals for limited employment opportunities. Social dislocation is a risk, with many migrants feeling inferior, alienated, and different in their new urban environs. Many face job discrimination, harassment, and exploitation at the hands of their supervisors and would-be employers. Poor housing conditions, rising food and rent prices, and the obligation to send remittances back home place substantial pressure on urban migrants. Yet, these coexist alongside some benefits. 

For example, migrants appreciate the independence, social outlets, and opportunities that urban life has to offer. A number of suggestions were made by households as well as migrants about the types of programs that could be of help to them, in both urban and rural areas. It is not the place in this chapter to comment on whether such recommendations are appropriate, or even feasible to implement by governments. In order to come up with such an assessment, a much more detailed analysis of the types of programs proposed, their cost, and their benefits, would be required. 

But what does emerge from the interviews with key informants is that while government officials and nongovernmental experts are aware of the consequences of climate change and extreme weather events for the population, they also recognize that the extent to which governments are dealing with these issues today is limited. This is a finding that is also emerging from other chapters in this study, in that both the community level responses and government programs and policies not only to cope with weather shocks but also to adapt to climate change, remain insufficient.

Tuesday, 25 May 2021

Forest in Trouble

As the 1990s progressed, it became clear to those of us in public health that a wave of infectious diseases was striking humans and many other forms of life. Humans faced multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis, Ebola, HIV, and dozens of other new pathogens. Crops were becoming infested with insects and infected with emerging viruses. Dolphins, whales, and seals were suffering from measles-like viruses, while fish were going belly up en masse with increasing frequency. Even trees were in trouble. 

Throughout the 1990s, I’d been trying to forge a new synthesis that would explain how a changing world could breed a wave of epidemics. I had begun my intellectual exploration into health and global change by gazing at a diagram that hangs in frames on the walls of public health offices nationwide. The diagram consists of three interlocking circles, emblazoned with the letters A, H, and E. It is known as a Venn diagram, and it holds the key to epidemiology, the study of epidemics. 

The circle labeled A represents the agent—meaning the bacterium, virus, parasite, or fungus that can, if conditions are right, infect a person, plant, or animal. The second circle, H, represents the host—the organism that becomes infected with the agent. The third circle, E, represents the environment—the external conditions that determine whether the agent will invade a host. The same three factors—agent, host, and environment—control whether people develop other diseases as well. The take-home lesson is that there are most often multiple causes for any one person’s sickness. 

The agent causing tuberculosis, for example, is the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. But even if M. tuberculosis is present, the disease won’t always develop. It will be more likely to occur if the host is weakened, perhaps by malnutrition or an HIV infection, and if conditions are ripe for transmission. Ideal tuberculosis-transmitting conditions occur in close quarters, such as those in the gold mines of South Africa or 1980s-era crack houses or prisons in New York City, where infected people cough profusely into common airspace. A host with a strong immune system living in a healthy environment can usually fight off the infection by surrounding the slow-growing bacteria with immune cells, effectively quarantining them and preventing the disease. But a weak host in close quarters is more likely to be infected and have trouble fighting the disease. 

This framework of agent, host, and environment, I’d realized, could be adapted to assess the impacts of global change. When global change is considered, ecosystems are the host. This analogy works on several levels. First, like the human immune system, both land-and ocean-based ecosystems have components that fight disease. In the immune system, antibodies stun invading pathogens, and white blood cells devour them. In terrestrial (land-based) ecosystems, birds of prey, like the spotted owls of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, eat rodents that can carry Lyme-disease-infected ticks, hantavirus, and bubonic plague. In marine (ocean-based) ecosystems, baleen whales and oysters filter-feed on algae and animal plankton, preventing the plankton from overgrowing into harmful algal blooms. 

Second, just as a host is influenced by its environment, every ecosystem is influenced by the global environment. This includes the conditions in the lower atmosphere (troposphere), the upper atmosphere (stratosphere), the biosphere, the ice cover (cryosphere), and the world ocean. Even disregarding climate change, humans have made huge changes to the global environment. By using chlorofluorocarbons and related chemicals in our air conditioners and antiperspirants, we’ve damaged the ozone layer in the stratosphere that protects all land-based life from the sun’s damaging ultraviolet rays. 

By overfishing, we’ve decimated once-abundant populations of cod and many other species. By unwittingly releasing dangerous synthetic chemicals that act like hormones in animal bodies, we’ve altered the fate of countless species. The list of disturbances goes on. Climate change portends larger changes by affecting the viability of entire ecosystems. Persistent warming can kill off vegetation, turning grasslands into deserts, as it did when a changing climate transformed the Sudanese Sahara 5,500 years ago from a semiarid grassland suitable for grazing sheep to the bone dry desert it is today. 

Warming seas make it harder for coral to reproduce, contributing to the coral bleaching events that are destroying reefs worldwide. Warmer and more variable weather can enable insects, including crop pests, finally, the analogy works because human civilization is disrupting the functioning of the ecosystems that supply us with healthy food, clean air, and pure water, just as pathogenic microbes disrupt the functioning of the host’s body, upon whom they rely for life support. 

Human civilizations are also disrupting the global environment. The overlapping circles of this Venn diagram represent these interactions. All of our social structures—our economy, our legal system, our energy system—influence both ecosystems and the global environment. That means that the agent in this analogy is usThis Venn diagram is useful in part because it offers an easy-to-grasp framework that illustrates how complex real-world systems work. 

Conditions in a host, whether human or ecosystem, must be conducive for an agent, be it microbe or human society, to flourish. And when conditions are such that the agent, host, and environment are all disturbed, a small problem can turn into a big one. A cold virus invading the throat of an overstressed person can cause days of sickness; a wildlife disease invading a disturbed and weakened ecosystem can spread and become an epidemic.

Wednesday, 30 September 2020

Earth, internal structure of Earthquakes and volcanoes

 Earth, the internal structure of Earthquakes, and volcanoes are manifestations of processes at work deep within Earth. These processes in turn are evidence of Earth’s internal structure, models of which have undergone considerable evolution in the 20th century. On a large scale, the internal features of Earth may be categorized as follows:

1. Core. This is the innermost layer of Earth, a dense, approximately spherical mass of very hot rock that accounts for roughly one-third of the planet’s mass and one-sixth of its volume. The core is divided into a solid inner core and a liquid outer layer.

2. Mantle. The mantle, the thick layer of rock surrounding the core, contains about two-thirds of Earth’s mass and more than four-fifths of its volume. An outer layer of the mantle is called the asthenosphere and is involved closely with driving plate tectonics. There is also a division within the upper and lower mantle based on mineral structure.

3. Crust. The crust, or surface layer, of Earth, is very thin compared to the mantle and core (five to 80 miles [8 to 129 km] thick) and accounts for only a tiny fraction of Earth’s total mass and volume. The crust floats on the asthenosphere by a process called isostasy, in which the relatively lightweight rocks of the crust are supported by the denser rocks below. The crust is divided into several individuals, rigid plates that interact with one another through various processes, generating earthquakes and volcanic activity. The crust contains many faults that produce numerous earthquakes.

Earthflow - an earthflow is a type of mass movement. It is a viscous flow of saturated, fine-grained materials that move downslope at speeds ranging from barely perceptible up to about 10 miles per hour (about 0.1 m/sec). Materials susceptible to earthflow include clay, fine sand and silt, and fine-grained pyroclastic material (primarily ash). 

The velocity and distance of the earthflow are controlled by water content, with faster and longer movements through higher water content. Some earth flows may continue to move for years. Earth flows normally begin when the water content increases either through rain, melting (normal heating or volcanic eruption), or liquefaction during an earthquake. Shaking from an earthquake may also initiate flow in saturated soil. The flows tend to bulge in the middle as they move, which in turn channels more fluid to the middle while the edges dry out. Earth flows will stop moving when the water content drops.

Earthquake hazard. An earthquake hazard is considered to be any of the damaging effects and processes of an earthquake that may affect the normal activities of people. Examples of earthquake hazards include surface faulting, ground shaking, landslides, liquefaction, slumping, fissures, avalanches, tsunamis, and seiches, among others.

Earthquake light - This phenomenon consists of a peculiar glow that sometimes is reportedly seen in the sky during earthquakes. What causes earthquake light is uncertain, but it has been suggested that methane escaping from underground during earthquakes is ignited somehow and burns near the surface, giving off light.

Earthquake risk - Earthquake risk is the probable damage to buildings, roads, services, and other infrastructure and the number of people that are expected to be killed or injured during an earthquake of a size in a location. Earthquake risk is a probabilistic model for a specific seismic event. It varies considerably with each area depending upon population and emergency readiness.

Earthquake swarm - Many earthquakes preceding a volcanic eruption. As magma moves upward in the crust, it pushes rock out of the way. It forces open cracks in the rock. Each break results in a small earthquake. These earthquakes are typical of magnitudes of 4 or less, but some larger earthquakes are possible. There can be hundreds to thousands of earthquakes in such swarms. volcanologists use this kind of seismic activity to predict eruptions. The correlation is not foolproof. Many earthquake swarms do not foretell a coming eruption but rather just the movement of magma.

Monday, 18 May 2020

Consequences of Deterioration in the System of Nature

The world's food production, clean drinking water, basic living facilities, and public health resources are declining and the population is growing. So, further burdening the families of the poor and creating social evils. In this regard, it has been mentioned in most of the reports where the average growth rate of the population is high and the resources are decreasing.
The people of developing countries are suffering from apathy, frustration, and chaos; they are not willing to accept any scientific, logical argument. Economic backwardness, mental discomfort, and lack of civic sense have plunged them further into poverty. The more problems from which the only way out is quality education, awareness-raising, and a tradition of dialogue, but how can that be? This question is stuck in its place.
All reports, surveys and press releases released by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) express deep concern over current ground conditions, climate change, and the spread of epidemics. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) says that despite international agreements, including those reached the 195-nation summit in Paris, the results are far from certain. Climate change is causing sea levels, global warming, epidemics, droughts, floods, and hurricanes to increase. It has found China's private companies are at the forefront of the relentless use of natural fuels.
Many times the increase in cars is a sign of China's growth, but the rapid increase in carbon emissions is polluting the air. Car manufacturers are focusing more on the production of petrol and diesel cars. Countries and multinational corporations are in a race to make the most of modern cars, and modern-day advertising is driving people crazy.
Most of the leading car companies in Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Japan and South Korea are working to develop alternative energy-efficient cars that can run on large solar and electric batteries. On the other hand, a strange and important issue Russia currently has the world's largest oil and natural gas reserves. Then there is Saudi Arabia, which is the largest exporter of oil. Iran, Qatar, Venezuela, Kuwait, and the Gulf states, which have spent on oil sales, are worried that the United States, the largest consumer, and buyer of oil, is now itself.
It produces the world's second-largest oil reserves. In such a situation, oil prices are falling and production is being reduced. There is also fierce competition, as evidenced by the recent dispute between Russia and Saudi Arabia over oil. Russia is unwilling to accept OPEC terms, while Saudi Arabia is unwilling to accept Russia's terms.
As a result, reconditioned cars from modern developed countries are being sold to less developed countries. In this way, developed countries sell the latest cars to their people instead of old cars have been. In developing countries, old cars are rampant, and oil consumption has increased. This is the contradiction of trade, of the global economy, one for-profit, and the other for loss. Climate change is increasing, and pollution is increasing.
Traffic jams not only spread smoke, density pollution but also noise pollution. We pay less attention to noise pollution while it is very dangerous. The noise of traffic on the road, the awkward sounds of horns, the noise from machines, loud music, and other activities have a very negative effect on our hearing, our mind, and nerves.
The vast majority of urban dwellers suffer from mental and nervous stress and various other ailments. People in developing countries suffer from many deadly diseases, viruses, and social problems. The biggest problem of these countries is population growth which is not noticed by the governments, society, or the elites.
Rural people do not even consider this a problem. Lack of education, lack of awareness, and some religious superstitions have made the people numb. The people of developing countries are suffering from apathy, frustration, and chaos; they are not willing to accept any scientific, logical argument.
Economic backwardness, mental discomfort, and lack of civics have plunged them further into poverty and problems. Therefore, the only way out of which is quality education and awareness-raising and a tradition of dialogue. But how is that? This question is stuck in its place.
Top priorities in the United Nations Environment Program, reduction of pollution, and social stability in societies are eradication of poverty and hunger, improvement of public health, universal education, and equal rights for women, clean drinking water.
Providing water and promoting the use of alternative energy instead of natural fuels for pollution-free societies, innovating industrial development, eliminating economic inequalities, continuing the struggle for justice and civil rights, and eliminating backwardness in societies.
UN environmentalists say the only way to solve these problems is through a public struggle. But instead of a public struggle, people can use modern means of communication, such as mobile phones, the Internet, Facebook, YouTube, WhatsApp, Twitter, etc., even without taking to the streets. In recent days, this work has been carried out by school children in more than 30 countries.
Such recipes are necessary. The people will benefit from it because the problem is not small. Further the entire planet and all kinds of life on it, of which the man is the foremost. The fact is that changes in the natural environment do not happen in months or years but in decades and centuries.
The recent conference of the United Nations Environment Program was attended by more than 500 environmentalists, geologists and geographers who have made it clear in their report that despite all the efforts and report so far, no practical steps have been taken.
Earth's temperature is rising, sea levels are rising, and large glaciers of ice are melting into the oceans in Greenland, the Himalayas, and Antarctica. River water is receding. Due to which seawater is entering the Delta areas which are badly affecting the agriculture and society of the Delta areas.
Due to this, various epidemics are spreading in these areas. Instead of disposing of industrial, chemical and acidic wastes properly, they are being dumped in seas, lakes, and canals, which are having severe adverse effects. This water is irrigating fields and vegetable farms in most areas. This is giving rise to various diseases.
Experts have repeatedly warned governments and responsible industrial circles not to play with precious human lives. But it is still going on. Global environmentalists and scholars have complained to the heads of different countries that they are talking about taking the necessary steps to reduce pollution and improve the environment, but in practice what is coming out. The problem is that the modern capitalist system, the retail and monopoly system, has established its monopoly through corporations.
The world has been transformed into a commercial market where everything comes from money. More exploitation is taking place in the name of globalization, even forcing people to buy and drink water. A monopoly has been established on every important thing.
Everything is being taken over by a powerful and organized mafia. The big shopping malls are sitting on monopolies. People are wasting money in the desert of dazzling lights. Gradually small capitalists, traders, and shopkeepers are disappearing.
Construction companies around the world have united; they have joined hands with the bureaucracy of countries through corruption. Black money launderers, tax evaders and those who make money through illicit means are supporting the mafia by investing in such businesses. The land, the sea, the drinking water, the grain markets, the foodstuffs, the pharmacies, and even the pharmacies are under siege. Honest politicians, judges, administrative officers, teachers, and ordinary citizens are the victims of gossip.
European educators complained at a recent meeting at the University of Paris that the vast majority of students from developing countries who come here for higher education have little emphasis on their subjects. There is no awareness. This is because education in developing countries is also being taken over by corrupt people called plant mafia.
A large number of students have become accustomed to shortcuts. In most universities, teachers teach students through photocopy notices. Universities are teaching old textbooks. In fact, quality education is not provided in primary and high schools in these countries.
Mafia occupation of the sea is said to be such that in most countries, where there are beaches, a significant portion of their population earns their living by fishing from the sea, which is now a concern. Because it has traditional fishing nets and other traditional equipment from which they have been fishing in their areas for years, but it is said that there are big modern trawlers of companies from developed countries who have all the modern equipment.
And there are self-employed equipment and experts who in a short period of time can catch a large part of the fish that weighs in tons. In such a situation, the fishermen of poor countries are becoming poorer and unemployed, but the mafia is doing its job.
Leading environmentalists from around the world, including John Jobber and Aldoliput, have stated in a recent research report that a strong lobby has emerged in the United States since Donald Trump became president, which has announced.
The lobby is also backed by the leading American newspaper, the Wall Street Journal. In fact, President Trump and a large lobby in the Republican Party, which owns oil companies, natural coal mines, and motorized companies. They are convincing the public that by rejecting global warming and developing a new ideology.
Hurricanes keep coming to the United States, blizzards on the rise around the world, paralyzing life in many cities and affected areas for days, closing roads, making it difficult for trains to run and power outages in some cities. The system gets wetter now because the world is entering the Ice Age According to this lobby.
The weather has been changing since the earth came into being. Once upon a time, it was a ball of fire. Oceans of fire used to boil. Then, centuries later, when the earth cooled down, the ice froze. And it was covered with snow. Then gradually, centuries later, the ice melted and turned into water, becoming oceans, mountains, and life.
These people claim that this earth is going to become a world of ice again and a time will come when the earth will be completely covered with ice, and the seas will freeze. This lobby's ice theory has been rejected by world leaders and thousands of experts because they believe that US President Donald Trump is a businessman, so he rejected the Paris Agreement in support of his big business friends and circles.
Separated, they want to maximize the use and sale of US oil, coal, and natural gas, as they do not participate in or support any agreement to curb the use of natural fuels. The recent incident in this regard is obvious to all. "It's not a dangerous virus, it's just a flu-like virus, it doesn't have to be confined to the house, you all have to work," he said.
When bad news started coming from one city after another, President Trump became confused and, as usual, started venting his anger on China and sometimes on Narendra Modi. China, India, Brazil, and other countries are also benefiting from the US environmental policy and are making good use of natural coal and diesel.
Thus, pollution control measures are not being implemented, which is of further concern to experts. Scientists, environmentalists, and geologists have repeatedly warned African and some Asian countries to take meaningful measures to curb population growth as the pace of population growth is severely affecting the planet's natural environment.
The world's food production, clean drinking water, basic living facilities, and public health resources are declining and the population is growing, further burdening the families of the poor and creating social evils. In this regard, Pakistan has been mentioned in most of the reports where the average growth rate of the population is high and the resources are declining.
For example, clean drinking water is becoming scarce; people have to buy water to drink. The poor are deprived of it. This is just the fault of the governments. The world's seawater is being used for purification. In the northern part of Pakistan, there are the world's largest glaciers, five rivers flow on our land.
It rains every year, floods come and wreak havoc in the sea. But governments have not built small dams, artificial lakes. If an artificial lake is built in the Cholistan, a large area can be irrigated and water scarcity can be reduced. The practice of building small dams is becoming common in the world and the idea of ​​building big dams has been rejected.
Therefore, in Pakistan, whose population is growing, it is necessary to build small dams. Monsoon rains have been increasing in Pakistan for a long time. Floods are coming from torrential rains. This is obvious to all, but unseen forces remain an obstacle in building dams. This is beyond comprehension. Water will become a major issue for nations in the years to come.
With regard to the global environment and climate change, we cannot deny the fact that man will have to bear the brunt of the distortions in the balance of nature. Man, intoxicated with gold, lust, greed, and power, has not only destroyed the society but has also severely damaged the natural system.
Man claims that he has reached many stages of development today and is now fulfilling the mission of conquering the universe. But has the planet established a corner that is environmentally friendly and free from all kinds of pollution and viral diseases? No, the whole world is polluted.
The United Nations Environment Program said in its annual report last year that Hurricane Sandy, which hit North America last year, was caused by a two-degree rise in temperature in the Atlantic Ocean. In this regard, most of the world's scientists who have been researching the marine environment, believe that climate change is happening in the world every thirty years, but this time the last two highs are changing the marine environment.
They are out of the ordinary. Recent maritime research, for example, has shown that waves are being recorded in the central part of the Indian Ocean. Professor Paul Kinch, who is researching the marine environment at a Canadian university, says the oceans could pose a major threat to the world.
He says modern research has shown that sea levels are gradually changing. Eighty years from now, the sea level is expected to rise eight feet in 2100 and to 50 feet in 2300. Experts believe that the waves in the middle of the Indian Ocean are signaling a major catastrophe in the near future, which poses a serious threat to all coastal cities and islands in the Indian Ocean.
Experts are more concerned about the rising sea level. The ocean, which is also associated with the South Pole, is heavier and is being affected by melting glaciers in the Arctic ice region. In addition, changes in the Atlantic Ocean, which lies between the North and the South, could affect the United States and its surrounding islands. In light of this sea-level change, a lobby of US experts, in support of President Trump, has likened global warming to global cooling.

Tuesday, 1 May 2018

Antarctica's Thwaites Glacier Might Be Unstable

•Eight research teams will be part of a massive five-year project to study an Antarctic glacier that's in rapid retreat.
•If it happens, the Thwaites Glacier's collapse would cause a dramatic rise in sea levels.
•The researchers are hoping to find out how dire the situation is, and what additional impacts this collapse would have.
•They'll be focused on the Thwaites Glacier, located on the western side of Antarctica. It has lost a huge amount of ice recently – enough to contribute about 4 percent of overall sea level rise – and a complete collapse of the Florida-sized glacier would push sea levels up as much as 3 feet, according to Public Radio International.
The new study will be an attempt to learn more about the glacier in hopes that it'll lead to better modeling and a more exact projection of what might happen in the future.
"Really, the whole program is about understanding that extra uncertainty attached to sea level rise and doing what we can to remove it, allowing people to protect their coastal environments and to prepare property to protect their populations," David Vaughan, the director of science at the British Antarctic Survey,
One reason why we know relatively little about Thwaites is because few researchers have made expeditions to West Antarctica to study it since the first trip in the 1950s, PRI also said. The glacier is some 1,000 miles from the closest research station, and weather conditions are not friendly to those who venture into the region, the report added.

But this time, eight research teams will join together for the project, and they plan to study everything from the bedrock under the ice sheet to the climate above it in hopes of finding out as much as they can about the glacier, PRI added. They want to know the history of this ice sheet so they can understand how it has behaved in the past, and if there's any hope to save it during the rapid retreat period currently taking place.

"There is still a question in my view as to whether Thwaites has actually entered an irreversible retreat," Vaughan told "It assumes the melt rates we see today continue into the future and that's not guaranteed. Thwaites is clearly on the verge of an irreversible retreat, but to be sure we need 10 years more data."

About 100 scientists will be sent to West Antarctica as part of the study, according to It'll be the biggest collaboration between U.S. and U.K. scientists in Antarctica in at least 70 years, the report added.

The study will cost about $27.5 million, according to Newser.

Monday, 19 March 2018

Final Warning by Stephen Hawkings

Stephen Hawking's final warning to humanity by legendary physicist believed we must leave Earth in the next 200 years or face EXTINCTION. Humans must leave Earth in the next 200 years if we want to survive. That was the stark warning issued by Professor Stephen Hawking in the months before his death today at the age of 76. The legendary physicists believed that life on Earth could be wiped out by a disaster such as an asteroid strike, AI or an alien invasion. He also warned over-population, human aggression and climate change could cause humanity to self-destruct. He believed, if our species had any hope of survival, future generations would need to forge a new life in space.

One of Hawking's main fears for the planet was global warming. 'Our physical resources are being drained, at an alarming rate. We have given our planet the disastrous gift of climate change,' Hawking warned in July. Moreover, rising temperatures and reduction of the polar ice caps, deforestation, and decimation of animal species. We can be an ignorant, unthinking lot.'  Hawking said that Earth will one day look like the 460°C (860°F) planet Venus if we don't cut greenhouse gas emissions.  Next time you meet a climate change denier, tell them to take a trip to Venus. I will pay the fare,' Hawking quipped. The physicist also believed President Donald Trump's decision to withdraw from the Paris Climate Agreement has doomed our planet. He warned Trump's decision would cause avoidable damage to our 'beautiful planet' for generations to come. 'We are close to the tipping point where global warming becomes irreversible,' the celebrated scientist told BBC last year.

If global warming doesn't wipe us out, Hawking believed Earth would be destroyed by an asteroid strike. 'This is not science fiction. It is guaranteed by the laws of physics and probability,' he said.  'To stay risks being annihilated. 'Spreading out into space will completely change the future of humanity. It may also determine whether we have any future at all.'  Hawking was working with Russian billionaire Yuri Milner's Breakthrough Starshot project to send a fleet of tiny 'nanocraft' carrying light sails on a four light-year journey to Alpha Centauri, the nearest star system to Earth. 'If we succeed we will send a probe to Alpha Centauri within the lifetime of some of you alive today,' he said. Astronomers estimate that there is a reasonable chance of an Earth-like planet existing in the 'habitable zones' of Alpha Centauri's three-star system.  'It is clear we are entering a new space age. We are standing at the threshold of a new era', said Hawking. 'Human colonisation and other planets is no longer science fiction, it can be science fact.'

Hawking believed that In the long run the human race should not have all its eggs in one basket, or on one planet. 'I just hope we can avoid dropping the basket until then', he said.  AI could replace humans. Hawking claimed that AI will soon reach a level where it will be a 'new form of life that will outperform humans.' He even went so far as to say that AI may replace humans altogether, although he didn't specify a timeline for his predictions. The chilling comments during a recent interview with Wired. He said: 'The genie is out of the bottle. I fear that AI may replace humans altogether.